Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) for developing components of the Smallholders Awareness Training (SAT) Model


  • Hassan Marzukhi Universiti Islam Selangor, Bandar Seri Putra, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
  • Mohd Ridhuan Mohd Jamil Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Perak, MALAYSIA
  • Murni Mawar Yunus Universiti Islam Selangor, Bandar Seri Putra, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, MALAYSIA
  • Latifa Bibi Musafar Hameed Universiti Islam Selangor, Bandar Seri Putra, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, MALAYSIA




Design, Development and Research (DDR), Good agriculture practices (GAP), Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM), Competitiveness, Sustainability


Smallholders in the oil palm industry lack competitiveness, ethics, and agricultural and technological knowledge. The authority’s competence in smallholder extension programs affects their livelihood in the upstream supply chain. This research aims to design and develop a prototype SAT Model to assist smallholders in following good agricultural practices (GAP) sustainably planting oil palms. It continues from the needs analysis phase and follows Richie and Klein’s (2007) Design, Research, and Development (DDR) approach. Through purposive sampling, the study obtains expert opinions and consensus on the components of the proposed model using a literature review and the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM). Sixteen oil palm experts from academia and industry participated in the design and development process via a 7-point Likert scale questionnaire. The study meets all three FDM criteria: a fuzzy score value (A) of α-cut 0.5, a threshold value (d) of 0.2, and a percentage of expert consensus of 75%. The findings pave the way for future agendas consisting of developing a complete SAT Model with ranking-coded elements and evaluating its usability for the oil palm and related industries. The study adds to the industry’s theoretical, methodological, and practical knowledge.


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How to Cite

Marzukhi, H., Mohd Jamil, M. R., Yunus, M. M., & Musafar Hameed, L. B. (2023). Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) for developing components of the Smallholders Awareness Training (SAT) Model . ANP Journal of Social Science and Humanities , 4(1), 12-22. https://doi.org/10.53797/anp.jssh.v4i1.2.2023